One type of crystal that can be bonded with Nd:YVO4 is YVO4, which is the host crystal of Nd:YVO4. The bonding of Nd:YVO4 and YVO4 can be done by a diffusion bonding method, which involves heating and pressing the crystals together without any adhesive materials. The function of the YVO4 endcap is to reduce the thermal effects at high power, such as thermal lensing, thermal stress, and thermal fracture. The YVO4 endcap can also protect the Nd:YVO4 crystal from damage by the pump beam or the environment.
Another type of crystal that can be bonded with Nd:YVO4 is Nd:GdVO4, which is another neodymium-doped vanadate crystal with similar properties to Nd:YVO4. The bonding of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 can also be done by a diffusion bonding method. The function of the Nd:GdVO4 crystal is to generate a dual-spectral-band laser around 1.06 μm in Q-switched and mode-locked operations. The Nd:GdVO4 crystal can provide a broader gain bandwidth and a higher emission cross-section than Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 μm.