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Nd:YAG Crystals

Application For 1064nm Nd:YAG Laser Treatment
Application examples: industrial medical, military, scientific
The neodymium ion provides the laser activity in the crystal.
Nd:YAG laser has a wavelength of 1064 nm and has the capability to reach deeper layers of skin tissue than other types of lasers.
In Q-switched mode, Nd:YAG produces 2 wavelengths, one in the infrared range (1064 nm) and the second beam of 532 nm wavelength which is useful for superficial skin lesionsQ-switching refers to the technique of making the laser produce a high-intensity beam in very short pulses.
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  • Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) is a crystal that is used as a laser medium for solid-state lasers.
  • The triply ionised neodymium [Nd(III)] dopant (ie a substance added in minute amounts to another pure substance to alter its conductivity), typically replaces a small fraction of the yttrium ions in the host crystal structure, since the two ions are of similar size.
  • The neodymium ion provides the laser activity in the crystal.
  • Nd:YAG laser has a wavelength of 1064 nm and has the capability to reach deeper layers of skin tissue than other types of lasers.
  • In Q-switched mode, Nd:YAG produces 2 wavelengths, one in the infrared range (1064 nm) and the second beam of 532 nm wavelength which is useful for superficial skin lesionsQ-switching refers to the technique of making the laser produce a high-intensity beam in very short pulses
The acronym ‘LASER’ stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A laser works by emitting a wavelength of high energy light, which when focused on a certain skin condition creates heat and destroys diseased cells. Wavelength is measured in nanometres (nm).
Various kinds of lasers are available; they are differentiated by the medium that produces the laser beam. Each of the different types of lasers has a specific range of utility, depending on its wavelength and penetration.
The following skin disorders can be treated with Nd:YAG laser beams.

Vascular lesions

The laser light pulses target red pigment (haemoglobin). Typical settings employed for the treatment of facial veins include a 50 milliseconds pulse duration, and fluence (ie output energy) of 150¬250 J/cm2 (measured in Joules per centimetre squared).

Pigmented lesions

Light pulses target melanin at variable depth on or in the skin.

Hair removal

  • Nd:YAG laser may be used for hair removal in any location including underarms, bikini line, face, neck, back, chest and legs.
  • Nd:YAG laser is generally ineffective for light-coloured (blonde/grey) hair, but effective for treating dark (brown/black) hair in patients of Fitzpatrick types I to III, and perhaps light-coloured type IV skin.
  • Extreme caution is recommended in tanned or darker-skinned patients, as the laser can also destroy melanin, resulting in white patches of skin (leukoderma).

The longer-pulse (millisecond) 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser system has been shown to be more effective in safely removing hair than has the Q-switched (nanosecond) Nd:YAG system.

Light pulses target the hair follicle, which causes the hair to fall out and minimises further growth. Typical settings employed include pulse durations of 2 to 20 milliseconds and fluences of 10¬40 J/cm2.

Tatoo removal

  • Blue, grey and black tattoos can be removed with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength). The colour of the tattoo and the depth of the pigment influence the duration and the outcome of the laser treatment.
  • Laser treatment involves the selective destruction of ink molecules that are then absorbed by macrophages and eliminated.

Typical settings are pulse duration: 10 nanoseconds, output energy: 300¬500Mj.

Onychomycosis

  • Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder caused by fungal pathogens.
  • Several laser devices have been granted FDA marketing approval for the treatment of onychomycosis.
    The first two lasers that were sanctioned by the FDA for the treatment of onychomycosis (PinPointe™ FootLaser™ [Cynosure, Massachusetts, USA ] and
  • Cutera GenesisPlus™ [Cutera, California, USA]) are both flashlamp-pumped short-pulse Nd:YAG 1064 nm lasers.
  • These lasers emit 100– 3000-microsecond pulses with an energy fluence of 25.5 J/cm2 for a 1 mm spot size.
Other uses of neodymium YAG laser
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Lasers work by emitting a wavelength of high energy light, which when focused on a certain skin condition will create heat and destroy diseased cells.

Vascular lesions

  • Treatment time depends on the form, size and location of the lesions as well as the skin type.
  • Small red vessels can usually be removed in only 1 to 3 sessions.
  • Several sessions may be necessary to remove bigger veins and spider veins.

Hair removal

  • In general, patients have 2 to 6 treatments, approximately every 4 to 6 weeks.
  • Patients with darker skin types may require more treatments.

Tattoo removal

  • The colour of the tattoo and the depth of the pigment influence the duration and the outcome of the laser treatment for tattoo removal.
  • Multiple sessions (5 to 20 sessions) spaced at least 7 weeks apart may be required to attain favourable results.

Onychomycosis

  • In general, patients have 4 treatments at monthly intervals.
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